According to the colonial Belgian Congo (Congo Belge), the former colony in Africa that was ruled by Belgium from 1908 until June 30, 1960, when it became an independent republic; it is now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. architecture and the impressive 80% of the people survive on less than one dollar per day. In 2010, the workers at the local palm plantation would earn an average monthly salary of $40 (US dollars), most others would have much less.. are linked by a network of Cassava is the main crop. 'Land of a Thousand Hills'. the time, the 'modern, light and the point of view of the moving This led to the arrest and punishment of several officials who had been responsible for murders during a rubber-collection expedition in 1903. In 2015, Francis Hannaway, a British national, opened a theraputic feeding centre in Basankusu, together with a team of 12 local volunteers. from the imposing Jesuit colleges Saint-Esprit, despite its 'open' Transporting agricultural goods from the outlying villages is one of our problems, distributing it to the major centres of population throughout the country is the other. The Collège du Saint-Esprit, Africans worked the mines and plantations as indentured labourers on four- to seven-year contracts, in accordance with a law passed in Belgium in 1922. about under the watchful eye of Within the sprawling configuration A Basankusu woman celebrates being connected to the outside world by mobile phone with a phone call to relatives in Kinshasa. spectator. Bij de onafhankelijkheid van het land in 1962 werd de naam gewijzigd in Bujumbura. Historian Betty Eggermont once dubbed the ideal of the simultaneous, ritual movements of students that typifies the school regime the 'choreography of schooling' : standing in rows when the school bell rings, entering the school interior in silence, taking their assigned seats in the classroom, raising their hands before answering . At every turn it offers , Since the independence of the 1960s, there has been an increasing deterioration in the quality of life for people of Basankusu and the Democratic Republic of Congo generally. airy' architecture was meant to Having been in an area of fighting during the military conflicts that took place from 1998 onwards, the population is still recovering from the resulting long-term effects. covered galleries. Reasons for this may be the large increase in the population nationally, as well as migration from outlying villages. Voor een officiële geschiedenis van het college, zie Maurice Pilette, 'Le Collège Interracial du Saint-Esprit à Usumbura', in : A. Deneef (red. Basankusu: typical houses in the Congolese rainforest (YouTube video), This page was last edited on 27 September 2020, at 06:10. for study, worthy of a cloister, or Boston: Houghton Miflin, 1999, pages 225-233. Wapenschild Congo : (bron larousse universelle 1948). Roger Bastin, was built between Lake Tanganyika, 1994), 'the The marketplace is a place for buying and selling locally grown foods and also foodstuffs from further afield, which have come up the river from centres of import, such as Kinshasa. Private European and American corporations invested heavily in the Belgian Congo after World War I. of modernity in this African , Jef Dupain, an African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) primatologist, who has spent more than a decade on the frontlines in the Congo working with bonobos, has also stated the devastating impact a lack of transport for trade has on conservation: "You can't just tell the local people not to eat bushmeat. Chimpanzee, bonobo, wild boar, monkey, antelope, and other wild animals are often sold in the market or at impromptu stalls around the town. with the best programmes in the At least eleven species of diurnal primates have been observed in the Maringa-Lopori-Wamba Landscape. the college in his novel Eclipse Read here to learn more about the Belgian Congo. its head teachers once said, one of the complex, suited to the The cost of a flight, however, is beyond the means of most private individuals; passengers tend to be people working for NGOs or businesses in Kinshasa. It is possible that the quietness of the Basenji is the result of the selective killing of dogs that bark, because barking could lead enemies to humans' forest encampments. sun-screening devices that typify A rebellion broke out in several eastern districts in 1919 and was not suppressed until 1923. The frequent breakdown of these river boats puts passengers in a precarious position regarding daily sustenance; a delay of several days can oblige passengers to sell all their belongings so that they can buy a meal. which students could be sheltered The factory at Lisafa is responsible for the treatment of the palm oil and production of soap. There is no real dry season, with monthly rainfall in the town ranging between averages of 69 mm and 213 mm, with most months at the higher end of that range. A study of These plots of land are often only partially cleared, with house-sized termite hills and the trunks of felled trees left to supply firewood for the year's cooking. Because of this, an AWF-funded cargo barge, the Ferbo I, now travels up and down the Congo and Maringa Rivers in the Congo to collect agricultural products from local farmers.. Other large mammals include the elephant (Loxodonta africana), the buffalo (Syncerus caffer), the bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) – which is an antelope characterised by a striking reddish-brown coat, white-yellow stripes, and long, slightly spiralled horns – the African golden cat (Profelis aurata), and the leopard (Panthera pardus).. November 2010. Basankusu is an important staging post for conservation projects, for example, those relating to the bonobo. A 700-kilometre boat journey from Basankusu to the capital, Kinshasa, can take several weeks. Als een baken van moderniteit straalt het college in het Afrikaanse Pays des milles collines. The complex Bujumbura is NU de hoofdstad van Burundi. The Collège du Saint-Esprit, The new building used computer design technology, and used reinforced concrete in place of kiln-fired brick. du Saint-Esprit was the first The college shines like a beacon Boniface Mwepu Katentakanya becomes bourgmestre (mayor). In de uiteengelegde configuratie van het complex, die inspeelt op de klimatologische condities in de tropen, worden de diverse functionele onderdelen van het complex (de klasgebouwen, de internaatvleugels, het wetenschapsblok, het dispensarium, de sportaccommodaties, de studiezalen, de centraal gelegen kapel, de residentie van de paters, het dienstenblok met refters, keukens, wasserijen en stockageruimtes) met elkaar verbonden via een netwerk van overdekte galerijen. Bricks for houses are of several types. The results have been catastrophic nationally: These numbers are not unusual for the Congo. complex, is an open space, with Violent altercations between Belgian forces and the Congolese also occurred later that year, and Belgium, which previously maintained that independence for the Congo would not be possible in the immediate future, suddenly capitulated and began making arrangements for the Congo’s independence. accommodations, the study halls, In the late 1950s, when France and the United Kingdom worked with their colonies to prepare for independence, Belgium still portrayed the Congo as an idyllic land of parent-child relationships between Europeans and Africans. in their white cassocks.'. The roots are made into cassava bread, known as kwanga, and other cassava-based dishes. Het complex is bewust ontworpen vanuit het standpunt van de bewegende beschouwer. , Another account of the etymology of Basankusu is that it comes from basa ba nkoso, meaning "quarrelling parrots", or possibly Baasa bankoso, "small parrots". The bonobo (Pan paniscus), Thollon's red colobus (Procolobus tholloni), the golden-bellied mangabey (Cercocebus chrysogaster), and the black mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) are found here.  The chicken meat is coated in the rich moambe sauce and is usually accompanied by rice, cooked cassava leaves (mpondu), and chili pepper (pili-pili). Moambe chicken is also considered a national dish. variations in levels, the terraces Bujumbura is Burundi's belangrijkste havenstad en verscheept koffie, katoen en tinertsen. The leaves are also used as a green vegetable and are compared to spinach for taste and texture. Cent ans d'épopée, A.E.S.M., Brussel Because political associations were prohibited at the time, reformers organized into cultural clubs such as Abako, a Bakongo association formed in 1950. the panoptic gaze is never far Allen's swamp monkey (Allenopithecus nigroviridis) is endemic to the flooded or floodplain forests of the Central Basin, and the Angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis) is known only in the Central Basin, the northeast of the Congo, and the Africa Great Lakes region. changing vistas onto the colourful It is the main town and administrative centre of the Basankusu Territory.  The British Parliament demanded a second meeting of the 14 signatory powers of the 1885 Berlin Conference, at which time the Belgian Parliament forced a reluctant Leopold to set up an independent commission of enquiry. In the interior, gold, diamonds, copper, tin, cobalt, and zinc were mined; the colony became an important source of uranium for the United States during World War II. ('African Hopes', 1961) by Jesuit Het biedt telkens wisselende perspectieven op de kleurrijke architectuur en het imponerende heuvellandschap. See Johan Lagae, 'Kongo zoals het is' : Three architecture stories from Belgian colonial history (1920-1960), doctoral thesis (University of Ghent, 2002). You're not taken seriously." Palm-thatched roofs and hard-earth floors are found in the majority of houses, but variations in construction include concrete floors and corrugated metal or fired-clay tiled roofs. Basankusu has grown rapidly since the recent national troubles of the two Congo Wars. Evening lows average around 20 °C.. 1952 and 1961 in Bujumbura, Houses tend to have an outside sitting area, because of the warm climate, and overhanging roofs to create a sheltered area from the heavy tropical rain. Waterborne diseases can become more prevalent, and the transport of goods, such as food, medicine, and trade goods, becomes more difficult. June: City becomes part of independent Republic of the Congo. In 2004, it had an estimated population of 23,764. Laude anno 1935, infor Congo, Larousse1948, Quillet 1926 en nog veel meer informatie gelezen in zeer oude tijdschriften. Excerpted from Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Belgian Primary Schools 1880–1940', History of Education, nr.2, 2001, p.129-140. Place in Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Location in Democratic Republic of the Congo. De panoptische blik is in het Collège du Saint-Esprit nooit veraf. dormitory wings, the science educated and where white and Set deep in tropical rainforest, the rivers serve as the highways for transport of people as well as goods. hills, 5 km from the city centre, Major barge operators are Transports Fluvial et Commerce de l'Equateur (TFCE) and Office National des Transports (ONATRA). Esprit as a serene environment Het was een dorpje tot er daar een militaire post werd gevestigd in 1889, in toenmalig Duits-Oost-Afrika. It is known as lotoko or bompulo. 'interracial' institution where the usual severe, enclosed architectonic  The reforms that followed the Casement Report, including those that concerned ABIR at Basankusu, set the foundation for the colonial Belgian state of Congo. Because of the woody core of the cobs of corn, the alcohol produced contains high levels of methanol, which is toxic. This article was most recently revised and updated by. (Bastin werd geboren als zoon van een textielhandelaar. In July, 2010, the town was affected by flooding, with 1,400 people made homeless. elite of then-Belgian Africa was Historical map of the Belgian Congo (1908–60). The roads within Basankusu are non-metalled and prone to erosion from the frequent, torrential downpours.  The Mill Hill Missionaries, together with the CICM Missionaries, supported the establishment of the Diocese of Basankusu, which has its episcopal seat at the cathedral.. : Onze Kolonie Dhr. There is an airport, consisting of a 1,480-metre gravelled airstrip and a small building where passengers can wait. , Prevalent illnesses include meningitis, dysentery, cholera, trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), and monkeypox. , Being slightly more than 1° north of the Equator, Basankusu has a tropical rainforest climate. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Roman Catholicism in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation: Socio-economic Impact of palm oil producers in Basankusu territory – The result of organisation and structuring of associations, Democratic Republic of Congo.  In 2010, a worker would earn an average monthly salary of $40 (US dollars), depending on output.. However, this came at a cost to the human rights of those who could not pay the tax, with imprisonment, flogging, and other corporal punishments recorded. Al naargelang de sympathie voor de instelling, zo zou ooit een van de schoolhoofden beweren, kon men het Collège du Saint-Esprit beschouwen als een serene omgeving voor studie, een klooster waardig, dan wel als een versterkte burcht of 'Alcazar'. In certain places, the density of Congo peafowl (Afropavo congensis) – a species endemic to the centre and northeast of the Congolese forests, with feathers of deep blue with a metallic green and violet tinge – is probably the highest in the country. Deze tekst is gebaseerd op een studie van het Collège du Saint- Esprit, uitgevoerd in het kader van een doctoraatsonderzoek. One company, Compagnie de Commerce et des Plantations (CCP), produces palm oil from plantations of African oil palms at nearby villages Lisafa and Ndeke. Jesuits in the early 1960s to be a The phone networks, one of which is the South African company Vodacom, enable people to keep in touch with family and friends who have migrated to Kinshasa or further afield. Klik op de afbeelding op de kaart te vergroten, Sources : internet, lecteurs ou auteurs du site (voir les sources mentionner dans les documents.) The lingua franca, Lingala (also a Bantu language), is spoken to cross the tribal divide – as it is in a great deal of the Democratic Republic of Congo. says the official history of the The people of Basankusu usually keep vegetable gardens away from the town itself.  its many bars and uncensored , The Casement Report comprises a multitude of individual statements gathered by the British Consul, Roger Casement, including several detailing the grim tales of killings, mutilation, kidnapping, and cruel beatings of the native population by soldiers of the Congo administration of King Leopold. off. Tanganyika like an acropolis. In Bujumbura voorheen Usumbura , provinicie Burundi, werd tussen 1952 en 1961 het Collège du Saint-Esprit opgetrokken naar een ontwerp van de Belgische architect Roger Bastin. Geschiedenis (bron wikipedia) nevertheless created significant Daar werd hij eerst aangetrokken door de muziek maar al vlug raakte hij gefascineerd door de architectuur van de oude abdijgebouwen waarin hij school liep.). Cassava (yuca), which originated in South America and the Caribbean, is the staple food in Basankusu. One 28-seater passenger plane to and from Kinshasa lands at Basankusu Airport each week, and an occasional 16-seat capacity plane associated with the palm oil plantation. Bread, produced in cottage bakeries, is available, as is locally grown and imported rice, although neither of these products is comparable to cassava in popularity. aspect. students could be seen going Large plantations (growing cotton, oil palms, coffee, cacao, and rubber) and livestock farms were developed. Several cargo planes also land here. Basankusu was the first trading post of the Abir Congo Company (ABIR) along the Congo River from Kinshasa (then known as Leopoldville), the capital of the Congo. neither boundaries nor closed-off Het Collège du Saint-Esprit, zo stelt de officiële geschiedschrijving over het complex, is een open ruimte, zonder begrenzing of afgesloten horizonten. In this regard, the Collège du The plantation areas are as follows: 3,488 hectares (ha) of oil palms, and 372 ha given over to coffee. sur le lac Tanganyika (Eclipse on Nadat Duitsland de kolonie moest afstaan door het verliezen van de Eerste Wereldoorlog kwam het in 1918 onder Belgisch bewind. Basankusu is situated on the Lulonga River, a tributary of the Congo, at the confluence of the Lopori and Maringa Rivers. 54% of the population do not have access to healthcare. sur le lac Tanganyika (Eclipse on The notion of the 'Choreography of Schooling' is borrowed from Betty Eggermont, 'The Choreography of Schooling as a Site for Struggle : Belgian Primary Schools 1880-1940', History of Education, no.2 (2001), 129-140. The collection system revolved around a series of trading posts along the two main rivers in the concession – the Lopori and the Maringa. Albert Russo in a passage about Basankusu - a family in front of a fired-brick house with palm-leaf roof and concrete floor.